Answer by Brian Roemmele:
If a rock was thrown at this glass house, little to no damage would occur.
The instantly iconic and artistically beautiful Fifth Avenue Apple store stands like a glass oasis amongst the almost century old granite and cement buildings in this area. This is an architectural marvel.
Stronger Than Your Average Glass
The 32 foot perfect cube is far more sturdy then it would appear to be. Apple uses a patented process that creates some of the strongest Industrial Grade Structural Glass in the world. This is the masterful collaboration of Apple, including Steve Jobs directly working with architect Bohlin Cywinski Jackson working for. Up until just recently, there was only one company in the world that could produce this Glass for Apple: Seele GmbH & Co. in Gerthofen, Germany.
During the design, tests were carried out using “Nastran" and "Lucas" FEA software, designed to calculate stresses and deformations in complex geometrical structures. The results of the FEA is a color-coded diagram that focuses on load limits of the glass. The lamination process is similar to the glass you would find in an Automotive window, but far, far stronger. Not only is the glass supporting the vertical load of the entire structure, it also completely supports the horizontal loads created by the structure itself and external forces such as high winds with the aid of 25 Glass Fins that run the height of the cube.
The Apple Cube Almost Stops A Speeding Bullet
There are no doubts that a thrown rock at most distances would simply bounce off the Glass panels in most cases. At worse case if hit on a support or corner, there would be some small chips expelled. The Glass can take a rather hard hit with a hand hammer and not offer up anything more than a few external chips. A Bullet from a typical hand revolver would cause a small entry hole, but certainly would not shatter the glass. This is not "Bullet Proof" glass, but in some circumstances a bullet will be deflected by the glass. It is the flexibility the Lamination process creates for the glass that really is the secret to it's strength. A wonderful presentation on the structural efficiencies of Laminated Glass by the Institute Of Structural Engineers, can be found here:
The Cube is Changing
Just when the the world has gotten used to this amazing structure, Apple is changing it for the better. This process will actually make the cube stronger and more amazing to look at. Apple is in the process of replacing the 90 Glass Panels for just 15!
There are a number of reasons for the change. One of them was a few very minor flaws in the original design that was causing a little more horizontal stress then what was projected, although it would not have caused a failure of the structure.
The new design will have far less connectors and about a 20% increase in panel strength in comparison to the older manufacturing process. Apple found that North Glass Safety Glass Co. in China was able to produce better structural support in comparison to Seele GmbH & Co. Apple tested this process with curved glass at the Sanlitun store in Beijing. Thus, Apple's remodeling will be complete later this fall.
Apple is far from done with its use of Structural Glass in its stores and at the proposed new headquarters. In the end, glass is still glass– but as technology keeps improving, the strength is being pushed to rival other traditional building materials.
Answer by Brian Roemmele:
The Beautiful 110 Year Old Light Bulb That Never Turned Off
Installed before the Wright Brothers took to flight, 110 Years old and she is still beautiful. It is perhaps the oldest electrical device in continuous use. Take a moment and contemplate just how much the world has changed around this amazing device.
Beautiful glow of the Shelby Incandescent lamp.
It was a hot summer evening in Livermore, California in 1901 and the band concert across the street was just about to conclude, but the fire captain had an announcement. The Fire Department Hose Cart House on L Street had just installed a new modern technological marvel, one of the first electric carbon lightbulbs in town and invited anyone curious to stop by and witness this new invention. This was the “Improved Incandescent Lamp” was the lightbulb of choice and it was an incredible design. In many cities the Fire Departments were motivating people to consider using this relatively new invention for safety. And of course this came by years of heartbreaking experience.
A lost era when companies had so much pride about who they were, where they were and what they built.
This amazing light bulb was invented by Adolphe A. Chaillet and manufactured by the Shelby Electric Company. The beautiful handblown glass bulb with a uniquely shaped carbon filament beamed a consistent ~10 watts (perhaps more). This light bulb has been turned on ever since, over 40,150 days. The only rest she took was for about 7 days during a renovation and the random power outages over the decades. She always woke up.
Showing her unique curves, what stories she could tell about how the world changed around her.
You can check in on how she is doing, still proudly casting her light and reporting for duty for the last 110 years at this live webcam:
A Lightbulb That Lasts Forever Is Not Good For Business
Know as the Centennial Light (), the Livermore Fire department is really quite proud of the bulb and the built to last American engineering and manufacturing that went into it. Sadly Adolphe’s superior lightbulb design and the Shelby Electric Company did not survive for a number of reasons.
One of the many reasons tweets would not work in 1901.
Some suggest that it was a plan of planned obsolescence that was taking over the industry that finally drew the end of Adolphe’s design. Some may suggest that the Shelby technology did not survive because in some way it was inefficient or high wattage or bright light was not possible. This is not the case at all. When the Shelby bulb was installed in 1901 it was brighter then a standard Edison bulb. Shelby also had bulbs of up to 60 watts in 1901 with color tonality of light orange to almost bright white this was far better then any other product.
Shelby was sold in a roll-up of a vast majority of Lightbulb companies in the United States. The National Electric Lamp Association a division of the General Electric Company purchased the Shelby Electric Company and with-in a year stopped all production on Adolphe A. Chaillet amazing design.
I have sat here and tried to think of any electrical device that I use that could weather 110 years of “always on” use. I am still thinking.
“I am still here”
The many advancements Adolphe made are lost to the sands of time. The exact processes may not have been saved, his knowledge is gone. Although there were three tantalizing patents issued in his life, they do not explain how he made his amazing carbon filament. What Adolphe really created was almost erased from popular history.
Yet this 110 year old light bulb is proof of what one person can achieve. It’s very existence proudly states, I am still here. It is proof that there is far more to all technologies then we can ever imagine. It is proof that true history matters. If only to pay tribute to the genius that got us so very far.
This proud 110 year old girl elegantly reminds us of all of the past, present and future Adolphe A. Chaillet’s of the world.
My deepest wish is that this light never goes out and can be contemplated perhaps a thousand years from now. May she serve as a living reminder of how we can make even the most simple useful things heroically beautiful.
The world may change and still she glows…
At 110 years old, she is spectacularly beautiful to behold. I see so much character and individuality.
HEY KIDS! What time is it? It’s time to play DIGITAL CORNHOLE!!!!!
I’ve been meaning to do something about this for maybe twenty years, and I’m not going to waste another minute putting it off. For now, this post will be the barest outline.
Progressives mostly agree that marijuana is still illegal in most states in order to keep the alcohol, paper and timber industries happy. Of course the law and defense enterprises benefit as well, all at taxpayers’ expense. We know that prohibition does not work, and it’s a moot point whether these anti-pot laws will finally crumble before global warming crumbles us.
Anti-prostitution laws are wrong for similar reasons. The foremost reason being that PROHIBITION DOES NOT WORK. Most first world countries “get this,” but USA always has to drag up the rear (no pun intended).
The consequences of anti-prostitution laws are similarly heinous and expensive, financially, ethically and socially (i.e. human suffering etc) as the anti-drug laws. How any of us “feels” about non-prescription drug use or prostitution is irrelevant. We are not talking about prohibitions against child abuse here.
Again, this is just a very broad outline, with much more to come, Ford willing.
Here is how we can force the issue. The first amendment protects porn film participants at every level, actors, directors, producers, film techs and so on, from any kind of prosecution because the first amendment protects their freedom of expression. So all sex-workers need do is set up a computer with video capability and some simple software (or heck, a smart phone with an application), and a printer. Even most smart-phones have video capabilities.
When the sex-worker (SW) and the john (or jane, as the case may) arrives at the designated place where the allegedly illegal act will take place, the following occurs first. Just as cops read arrestees their Miranda rights, the SW informs the client that they are producing a porn video. The SW is the producer, the client is the distributor with COMPLETE CONTROL of distribution. The software or app then produces all the legal verbiage that must be part of a formal commercial film product. The client signs a print out of an agreement confirming the production of this video. As sole distributor, the client has the right to not distribute the video.
Voila, case closed. The SW performs the service (and is named as actor in the video, as is the client), the act is taped. The client gets a dvd (or the video is sent to a designated email address) and signs that he has “received,” the product. Oh, and the software will blur the faces of the participants, if so desired.
At this point, the transaction is 100% legal in all fifty states.
Try to find a hole in that! Again, no pun intended.
In which we discover one of the sources of denial. “Grim warnings about climate change may prompt more skepticism than action, simply because they seem unjust.”
In which we discover one of the sources of denial.
“Grim warnings about climate change may prompt more skepticism than action, simply because they seem unjust.”
Feinberg, M., and R. Willer. Apocalypse soon? Dire messages reduce belief in global warming by contradicting just-world beliefs. Psychological Science
Grim warnings about climate change may prompt more skepticism than action, simply because they seem unjust. Portraying children as innocent victims, for instance, conflicts with common assumptions that the world is fair—a clash that might trigger doubt and inaction. Indeed, a recent survey showed that the stronger one’s belief in a just world, the greater one’s skepticism after reading a grim global warming article (but not an optimistic one that also presented solutions). Researchers found they could reduce participants’ skepticism—and increase their willingness to act—by tweaking their worldviews with statements such as “Often, justice will not prevail.” Environmental organizations may want to take note.”
So here we discover one source of denial; one of many, I daresay; but not the evolutionary roots of this behavior. Perhaps nurture trumps nature as I seem to have been born without this “denial gene,” as is, by my reconing, 1% of the population. I’m not going into my personal enviro/nurture histology at this point, however.
Elsewhere, I’ve read about the possible correlations between intelligence and depression. More recently, I read about the correlation between intelligence and fondness for drink.
Indeed, ignorance is bliss.
I’m disturbed, but not surprised by the mild Panglossianism implied by the syntax of the last sentence in the above quote, about environmental activists incorporating this in their climate education endeavors.
Shit man, this implies a lot more than that. If progressives of all stripes want to make significant impact on the majority’s inherent ostrich-head-in-the-sandicity, here’s a major key. No pun intended.